RRT - Repeat and Recall Test

The ORCA Repeat-Recall Test (RRT) is a speech-in-noise test that simultaneously provides an assessment of the patient’s auditory working memory and reported listening effort. It measures 5 separate performances: repeat, recall, context use, listening effort and tolerable time.

The test starts with the Repeat Task. The patient is presented with a list of pre-recorded sentences in quiet or in noise at a fixed signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). The patient is asked to repeat each sentence and commit the content of the sentences to memory. The Recall Task starts 15 seconds after all 6 sentences in a list have been repeated. The patient freely recalls sentence content from the last list that s/he heard. When the patient indicates that s/he cannot recall any more, s/he rates how effortful s/he finds the listening situation on a 10-point anchored rating scale. The patient is also asked to provide an estimate of tolerable time—how long (in minutes) s/he is willing to spend concentrating on the talker under the specific noisy conditions.

A unique feature of the RRT is that a patient’s responses can be compared to those with normal hearing with no cognitive impairment. When the individual results are compared to data collected from normal hearing patients, it may help set realistic expectations and direct the focus of rehabilitation. The test may be used to document the level of difficulty experienced by the patient (unaided testing), measure the success of amplification (hearing aids and cochlear implants, aided testing), and the relative benefit of specific hearing aid features such as noise reduction and directional microphones. Additionally, one may group patients by performance (such as Recall) for research purposes. 

Norms on normal-hearing listeners are available for the RRT on each outcome measure. The percentile score reflects an individual’s performance relative to the normative sample.
Research on realistic expectations suggests that generic counseling does not improve hearing aid satisfaction. Comparing a patient's RRT performance that of normal hearing listeners may allow clinician to pinpoint specific problem areas where additional fine tuning, selection of alternative devices, or focused counseling may be provided. 

Tutorials on the use of the RRT

One hour introduction to the repeat-and-recall test
Want to know what the RRT can do, but don't have too much time? This introductory talk will show you what the test does and how you can use the information.
Rationale and development
Find out why we developed the Repeat-Recall Test, the steps we took to ensure its effectiveness, and what information can be available from using the test.
Find out how to use the Repeat-Recall Test, including useful hints and tips on test -setup and use for different versions of the RRT (Standard, Quick, Custom and Practice). A must-watch before actually performing the test.
Clinical applications
Find out how results from the RRT may help you in the clinical process such as profiling a patient’s communication skills, demonstration of hearing aid efficacy, and counseling for appropriate intervention/rehabilitation.
Research applications
Find out more details on the studies we have completed on and with the Repeat-Recall Test. We hope you may be inspired to include the RRT in your research studies.  

Interested? Contact ORCA-US to request a copy of the RRT.

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Korhonen P. (2023) Characteristics of the Quick Repeat-Recall Test (Q-RRT). Int J AudiolLINK:Abstract

Slugocki, C, Kuk, F, Korhonen, P. (2022) Alpha-band dynamics as a neural proxy for listening effort in hearing aid wearers performing the Repeat-Recall Test (RRT). Int J Audiol.

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Korhonen P. (2020) An integrative evaluation of the efficacy of a directional microphone and noise-reduction algorithm under realistic signal-to-noise ratios. J Am Acad Audiol. 31:262–270. LINK:Abstract

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Korhonen P. (2020) Using the Repeat-Recall Test to study factors affecting context use. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology. (Accepted).

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Ruperto N, Korhonen P. (2020) Performance of normal-hearing listeners on the Repeat-Recall test in different noise configurations. International Journal of Audiology. 1–9. LINK:Abstract

Kuk F, Korhonen P, Slugocki C, Ruperto N. (2019) How to use the Repeat-Recall Test (RRT) to increase hearing aid satisfaction. Hearing Review. 26:32–40. LINK:Full text

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Korhonen P, Seper E, Hau O. (2019) Evaluation of the efficacy of a dual variable speed compressor over a single fixed speed compressor. J Am Acad Audiol. 30:590–606. LINK:Full text

Kuk F, Slugocki C, Korhonen P. (2018) Better speech-in-noise testing: Demonstration with dual variable speed compression. Hearing Review. 25:24–28. LINK:Full text

Slugocki C, Kuk F, Korhonen P. (2018) Development and clinical applications of the ORCA Repeat and Recall Test (RRT). Hearing Review. 25:22–28. LINK:Full text